The smart man knows no virtue, yet he achieves it.
The clever man grasps at virtue and meets with sin.

The smart man does nothing, yet leaves nothing undone.
The clever man is always doing and still, much remains.

When the clever man cannot follow the Way, he resorts to virtue.
Failing virtue, he resorts to kindness.
Failing kindness, he resorts to justice.
Failing justice, he resorts to conduct.
The rules of conduct are either followed or enforced–
They are merely an outer showing,
The beginning of all confusion and disorder.

The smart man dwells on the substance, not the surface,
The fruit and not the flower.

He prefers what is within to what is without.